The cheek cell, an example of an animal cell, generally has a circular, oval shape. Due to the fact that the cheek cell was not in groups or clumps, the arrangement of this type of cell is unknown. From previous labs, I remember that the cells were pushed together completely; each cell fitted beside another cell perfectly and so on. The animal cell structure is the most prominent in human cheek cells. The onion skin cell, an example of a plant cell, generally has a rigid, rectangular shape. The onion skin cells were positioned beside each other (length touching length, width touching width) and formed a checkered pattern. Also, like the cheek cell, the onion skin cells were pushed together so that no spaces were in between. Two differences between a cheek cell and an onion skin cell are that the onion skin cells has the chloroplast and cell wall organelles while the cheek cell doesn’t and the general shape of the onion skin cell is a rectangle and the general shape of the cheek cell is an oval.
Figure 5: The origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts Mitochondria and chloroplasts likely evolved from engulfed prokaryotes that once lived as independent organisms. At some point, a eukaryotic cell engulfed an aerobic prokaryote, which then formed an endosymbiotic relationship with the host eukaryote, gradually developing into a mitochondrion. Eukaryotic cells containing mitochondria then engulfed photosynthetic prokaryotes, which evolved to become specialized chloroplast organelles. © 2010 Nature Education All rights reserved. Figure Detail
Figure 3 : Plant plasma membrane and cell-wall structure A plant cell wall is arranged in layers and contains cellulose microfibrils, hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, and soluble protein. These components are organized into three major layers: the primary cell wall, the middle lamella, and the secondary cell wall (not pictured). The cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane and provides the cell tensile strength and protection.
© 2008 Nature Publishing Group Sticklen, M. B. Plant genetic engineering for biofuel production: towards affordable cellulosic ethanol. Nature Reviews Genetics 9, 433-443 (2008). All rights reserved. Figure Detail Besides the presence of chloroplasts, another major difference between plant and animal cells is the presence of a cell wall . The cell wall surrounds the plasma membrane of plant cells and provides tensile strength and protection against mechanical and osmotic stress. It also allows cells to develop turgor pressure , which is the pressure of the cell contents against the cell wall. Plant cells have high concentrations of molecules dissolved in their cytoplasm, which causes water to come into the cell under normal conditions and makes the cell's central vacuole swell and press against the cell wall. With a healthy supply of water, turgor pressure keeps a plant from wilting. In drought, a plant may wilt, but its cell walls help maintain the structural integrity of its stems, leaves, and other structures, despite a shrinking, less turgid vacuole.