The Licentiate of Engineering is an intermediate postgraduate degree used only in a few countries, among them Sweden and Finland, and can be seen as an academic step halfway between a Master's and a PhD. In Swedish, it is called Teknologie Licentiat , usually abbreviated as Tekn. Lic. , and in Finnish, tekniikan lisensiaatti , abbreviated as TkL . The Licentiate of Engineering corresponds to 120 ECTS credits (80 workweeks (old credits)), or nominally two years of full-time work, whereas a PhD amounts to 240 ECTS credits (160 workweeks (old credits)), or a nominal period of four years of full-time work (one old credit equals one week of full-time studies). However, as a result of the differences in requirements and individual performance, the time to complete a Licentiate of Engineering degree varies. For the thesis, 2–3 peer-refereed articles (or an equivalent monograph) is usually required, and there is no requirement for original research per se . In contrast, a doctoral thesis requires 4–6 articles and must demonstrate original research.
Hlengiwe is an experienced scholar, researcher and activist who has participated in the International Human Rights Exchange (IHRE) and the African Centre for Migration and Society (ACMS). She is a recipient of many awards for meritorious academic achievement – including the prestigious Ruth First Prize for best third-year research projects in Sociology and best Master’s research project in 2015. Hlengiwe’s research interests include local governance and citizenship, labour studies, public administration, community protests, and gender justice.
It ought to be commemorated, as the Day of Deliverance by solemn Acts of Devotion to God Almighty. It ought to be solemnized with Pomp and Parade, with Shews, Games, Sports, guns, Bells, Bonfires and Illuminations from one End of this Continent to the other from this Time forward forever more. You will think me transported with Enthusiasm but I am not. I am well aware of the Toil and Blood and Treasure, that it will cost Us to maintain this Declaration, and support and defend these States. Yet through all the Gloom I can see the Rays of ravishing Light and Glory. I can see that the End is more than worth all the Means. And that Posterity will tryumph in that Days Transaction, even altho We should rue it, which I trust in God We shall not. John Adams, letter to Abigail Adams, July 3, 1776