Hawking radiation thesis

Cosmologists realized that a physical description of the universe prior to the Planck time would require the introduction of quantum physics in addition to GTR. In 1973 Edward Tryon speculated whether the universe might not be a long-lived virtual particle, whose total energy is zero, born out of the primordial vacuum. 30 This seemingly bizarre speculation gave rise to a new generation of cosmogonic theories which we may call Vacuum Fluctuation Models. In such models, it is hypothesized that prior to some inflationary era the Universe-as-a-whole is a primordial vacuum which exists, not in a state of expansion, but eternally in a steady state. Throughout this vacuum sub-atomic energy fluctuations constantly occur, by means of which matter is created and mini-universes are born (Fig. 5).

To tell you the truth, I don’t really think much on it, mainly because it is likely never possible to know what happened, unless we invent a time machine. The only thing I can say is that whatever the answer, I believe it to be a natural one….not a supernatural one. The reason I think that is because nothing in any of my research has shown that there are violations of the natural order. I have explored miracle claims, supposed mass events, look at research studies meant to explore these types of claims, including the supernatural in general….and the results just doesn’t leave any room for a god. The only arguments I hear for a god these days lie only in the gaps in scientific knowledge. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve heard, “we can’t explain how the universe came about, but it must have been a god because of how finely tuned it is”…..or something to that effect. Problem is…..it is a poor argument for several reasons. First our knowledge of the universe is very weak….we don’t know how many planets have life on them, or all of the conditions required for life, nor even exactly how many stars and solar systems there are. So saying it is “finely tuned” is wishful thinking on a microscopic sample….but even our own planet isn’t fine tuned given we constantly have things trying to kill us from natural disasters, to viruses, animals and even our own design flaws getting the better of us (choking, cancer, etc). Second….even if I granted for the sake of the argument that it is “fine tuned”….that in no way links the “fine tuning” to any particular claim of a god, alien, computer simulation or any other claim that can be used to explain the universe.

Acoustic black holes were first theorized to be useful by William Unruh in 1981. [6] However, the first black hole analogue was not created in a laboratory until 2009. It was created in a rubidium Bose–Einstein condensate using a technique called density inversion. This technique creates a flow by repelling the condensate with a potential minimum. The surface gravity and temperature of the sonic black hole were measured, but no attempt was made to detect Hawking radiation. However, the scientists who created it predicted that the experiment was suitable for detection and suggested a method by which it might be done by lasing the phonons. [7] In 2014, self-amplifying Hawking radiation was observed in an analogue black-hole laser by the same researchers. [2]

* The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a vault buried 400 feet inside a mountain in the Arctic with over ten tons of seeds from all over the world. 100 million seeds from more than 100 countries were placed inside as a precaution to preserve all the world's crops. A prepared box of rice originating from 104 countries was the first to be deposited in the vault, where it will be kept at minus 18C (minus ). Thousands more plant species will be added as organizers attempt to get specimens of every agricultural plant in the world. Cary Fowler, executive director of the Global Crop Diversity Trust said that by preserving as many varieties as possible, the options open to farmers, scientists and governments were maximised. "The opening of the seed vault marks a historic turning point in safeguarding the world's crop diversity," he said. Even if the permafrost starts to melt, the seeds will be safe inside the vault for up to 200 years. Some of the seeds will even be viable for a millennium or more, including barley, which can last 2,000 years, wheat 1,700 years, and sorghum almost 20,000 years.

Hawking radiation thesis

hawking radiation thesis

* The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a vault buried 400 feet inside a mountain in the Arctic with over ten tons of seeds from all over the world. 100 million seeds from more than 100 countries were placed inside as a precaution to preserve all the world's crops. A prepared box of rice originating from 104 countries was the first to be deposited in the vault, where it will be kept at minus 18C (minus ). Thousands more plant species will be added as organizers attempt to get specimens of every agricultural plant in the world. Cary Fowler, executive director of the Global Crop Diversity Trust said that by preserving as many varieties as possible, the options open to farmers, scientists and governments were maximised. "The opening of the seed vault marks a historic turning point in safeguarding the world's crop diversity," he said. Even if the permafrost starts to melt, the seeds will be safe inside the vault for up to 200 years. Some of the seeds will even be viable for a millennium or more, including barley, which can last 2,000 years, wheat 1,700 years, and sorghum almost 20,000 years.

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